Movement

Movement can be seen as a dynamic nature of co-creation culture. It is manifested in autonomy of individuals, emphasis on acting over planning, iterations as a way of design and awareness of the progress.

Autonomy

Autonomy is one of the key components for intrinsic motivation as it has effects on intrinsic motivation36.

It also promotes self-efficacy, for example, job enrichment (the vertical expansion of work, i.e., increasing the opportunity and responsibility to make decisions) has been shown to be particularly effective36.

Autonomy increases perceived capability to influence the situation. It provides employees with more opportunities to acquire new skills and responsibilities, and may make employees  ́more receptive to change and feel less threatened by it36.

Acting over planning

Ideas need to be concretized, prototyped, and iteratively experimented with. Action is emphasized over planning—it is usually better to ask for forgiveness than permission. Experimenting helps to clarify ideas and gain feedback from other stakeholders and the environment, creating a learning process that hones initial raw ideas towards implemented changes37.

When the goal is to develop innovative and novel solutions, learning by experimenting is a crucial part of the process38.

Failures should not be seen as mistakes since they produce new information— learning—which is the goal of experimenting39.

Accepting unsuccessful trials as a necessity for innovation and as unavoidable outcomes of experimenting is a precondition for achieving an experimentation-driven approach39.

Iterative design

Iterative, experimental approach inherent to co-creation can lower the threshold for participating in collaborative development efforts by scaling down the required input and decreasing the level of risk associated with taking part40.

Action-centric, iterative development, with first-hand experience of the topic and with the stakeholders, forms the basis for initiating and sustaining intrinsically motivated development efforts41.

Often the situation in innovative projects is that neither the goal nor the means of reaching the goal are known at the outset. In order for the team to move forward in the uncertain terrain it needs to take action despite the discomfort of uncertainty and high risk of failure. This means that the team needs to create the necessary information and learning along the way through iterative prototyping, modeling, and simulation that explore different alternatives42.

Indication of progress

Progress maintains commitment47.

Since innovation projects tend to be messy and highly uncertain, keeping all team members on the same page is crucial to ensure constructive dynamics and continuous progress. Visual representations can help in coordinating, finding synergies, discussing complex topics in a structured manner, and moving the discussion from persons to issues45.

Perceiving work as meaningful increases intrinsic motivation, while progress helps to maintain continuing efforts towards a creative goal46.